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The Money Maker

Graphic Design, Photography

Posted by Mark Sinclair, 2 February 2007, 13:46    Permalink    Comments (12)

250 guilder sketch
Proposed sketch for the 250 guilder note by Ootje Oxenaar featuring G Rietveld's Schröder
House. The concept was rejected in favour of an image of a lighthouse (see below)

Robert Deodaat Emile Oxenaar – or Ootje as he's known – is, at 76, still teaching in the graphic design department of the Rhode Island School of Design. Born in The Hague in the Netherlands he attended the city's Royal Academy of Art and then, from 1966 until 1985, worked for the Nederlandsche Bank on a series of new banknotes. It was here that he designed what came to be his most famous project and, in terms of currency design, what many consider to be the most beautiful money in the world.

CR spoke to Ootje about his work, how he added personal elements to approved designs and how it feels to have your artwork seen and used by millions, everyday, for over 30 years. (An edited version of the interview appears in our current issue, guest-edited by ad agency Mother, alongside a DPS reproduction of his classic 10 guilder note).

10 guilder
10 guilder note (front) featuring an illustration of Frans Hals

CR: How did you come to design this series of banknotes for the Dutch Central Bank?

OO: In 1964 the Dutch Central Bank invited three desigers to come in with a proposal for a new five guilder bank note. This was, in a way, very new in the world that a bank asked two designers and one artist. They chose me in the end, an independent designer, to do a series of five notes. Only in Switzerland had this happened before where independent designers were used. The first five guilder went well – it was really training for me; then they commissioned me to do the series: 5, 10 , 25, 100 and 1000. I knew that one note took three years to make and so that when the last one would come in to circulation, it would be 30 years from the moment I started the job! People would be walking around with my money in their pocket all that time!

10 guilder
10 guilder note (back)

25 guilder
25 guilder note (front) featuring an illustration of Jan Pieterz Sweelinck

25 guilder
25 guilder note (back)

CR: Can you describe how you went about designing the notes?

OO: The creative processs was very simple: paper and pencil. I was just sketching. When I presented my sketches, they were actual size and I used a bit of watercolour, pencil and coloured pencils… good quality ones. There were issues of security of course – the way I was making the sketches was simple, but before I could make a design, I received a book about the size of a telephone directory containing all the notes on safety issues; the paper, the watermark, everything. When you read all that information you think you can’t do it. Later on, I checked through it properly, and three years later came the first banknote.

I was already well known in the 60s by the printers of banknotes as I had made stamps and the head of the printing firm and I were good friends. What I was asking, however, was going to be a whole new way of doing banknotes and, slowly, there developed a circle of friends who believed in it. At first they said it was impossible: “because we’ve done it like this for a hundred years and now is not the time to change it,” they said. They were very traditional at the beginning – they’re a high quality firm – so it took a while to get a circle of believers.

CR: How did you feel about designing money? Did you have any misgivings at all, or did you see it as such a great opportunity that it wasn't to be missed?

OO: I was really very pleased when they asked me, when I got the whole series. You’re making something that lasts for decades and is in everyone's pockets, every shop; it’s a fantastic feeling. And a great feeling, especially, when you can do it in your own way. I was very proud when the first one came out in circulation. I could lay it next to the sketch and see that it was virtually the same. In the later part of the series they asked me to remake the five guilder, and then later the 100 note. I changed our war criminal – the grand admiral – to a snipe.

100 guilder
100 guilder note (front) with an illustration of a watersnip (snipe)

100 guilder
100 guilder note (back)

100 guilder
100 guilder note (back, detail)

I was very pleased that after the series, when they needed the new 100 guilder note, that I had completely free reign. Then came the 50 guilder notes. Our phone rang and the man who later became the first director of the Central Bank of Europe says: “we’re going to make a new note of 50 guilders?” “OK!” I said. And they left me alone to make the sunflower. Then they needed the 250 note. These last three notes, where I had free reign to work, I had a wonderful time.

50 guilder
50 guilder note (front) with an illustration of a sunflower

50 guilder
50 guilder note (back)

50 guilder
50 guilder note (back, detail)

CR: Were you paid for the banknotes work in any money that you designed?

OO: Haha. For the banknotes work, they paid me in Giro but I got a few banknotes too. It’s a misunderstanding that when you make banknotes you will be rich! No; they were the most stingy bank and a stingy government. In a way both of them had this mentality where they thought I should pay them, as it was such an honour!

CR: Are some of the notes more special to you? Do you have a favourite?

OO: I always said that the last one is my favourite; I liked it best when I was completely free to do what I wanted with the designs. I also have a special place for the first one after the 5 guilder; the 10 note – on that one I engraved the face myself. I was engraving for nearly half a year as I wanted to know the difficulties and I was trained by the official engraver, with the magnifying glasses on, watching the shiny curls coming up off the plate – it has something sensual about it, something of high craftmanship. And it’s still one of the best defences against copying, this craftsmanship.

1000 guilder
1000 guilder note (front) featuring an illustration of Baruch D'Espinoza

CR: Is it right that you included some “personal” touches on some of the notes – like a fingerprint?

OO: Yes, the fingerprint’s true. In the five guilders note I did, there’s a temple in the background where the holy things are – so I hid my name there. On the 1000 guilder note, it became a “sport” for me to put things in the notes that nobody wanted there! I was very proud to have my fingerprint in this note – and it’s my middle finger! It was too late when they found out and though the director saw it he said he wouldn’t stop the whole production.

1000 guilder detail
1000 guilder note (front, detail). Note the curl in the hair, top right: it's actually one of Oxenaar's
fingerprints. From his middle finger, no less

My last banknote – the 250 guilder with the lighthouse on it – at the top are three names; my secret names! It’s three ladies: my grand-daughter, Hannah, my girflriend who I was living with, Ria, and a secret friend. When these were in circulation I got a letter from the bank director and he said someone – an idiot, a collector – who had had their magnifying glasses out had written to the bank asking what the meanings of the names were. The president of the bank had to write back and said he didn’t know! I was so triumphant – I’d made it, after all this time. Of course, they’re also a very good anti-copying device.

250 guilder
250 guilder note (front) with an image of a lighthouse. Hidden in the image are the names of three
special ladies from Oxenaar's life

250 guilder
250 guilder note (back)

250 guilder detail
250 guilder note (back, detail). Hey, is that a rabbit down there? Yes it is

CR: How does it feel now to have been behind these notes?

OO: It’s impressive. The 10 guilders note was one of the most used. It was printed between 1966 and 2000. And banknotes print likes newspapers – on big paper that’s then cut up into notes. They print it with the speed of the newspapers too: day and night for 30 years!

I’ve never had a dull moment in all the 25 years I worked on it. The moment you’ve finished one banknote, everything in the world has changed and you also have to fight against the forgers. It’s never up to date, always slightly behind the times.


I've wanted to purchase some of these vintage Dutch Guilder notes, but they are suprisingly difficult to find. Does anyone know of a good source?
2007-02-05 20:17:38

Funnily enough, I checked out a few auction sites, prior to us actually getting some scans from Ootje himself, but his notes were really quite scarce. There were probably as many notes available on eBay as there were on currency sites.

There's a 10 guilder for sale now, in fact:

Also worth a trawl are:

Let us know if you source some...
Cheers, Mark
2007-02-05 20:40:40

Great interview, brought back some great memories of these great Dutch notes. Real shame we had to return them all to the Dutch National Bank and exchange them for Euro notes... The Dutch notes were so festive... Especially the Lighthouse one, which is my favorite.
Kenneth Verburg
2007-02-19 19:37:22

The 50 fl. note remains, for me, the greatest loss in the switch to the Euro: it felt like a privilege to have one in my wallet when working in Amsterdam in 1999. (The 250 fl. is also gorgeous, but I never got my paws on one.) And yes, I'll be trawling eBay to see if any survivors are still out there.
Nick S
2007-02-20 23:03:05

There are some auction sites where they sell Dutch notes, you can try or

It's all in Dutch, but maybe with a little help from Babelfish everything will be a bit clearer.
2007-02-23 21:39:06

nice post,

little mistake the Name from the guy of the 25 guilder note is named Jan Pietersz. Sweelinck (Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck) not Jan Pieterz Sweelinck
Christoph Knoth
2007-12-08 10:33:33

Yes, I miss those SO MUCH..... Especially they old 50 guilders note, the sunflower..
2009-05-20 22:15:01

How amazing it must be to have your work on display in so many ways and to so many. I guess in many cases nobody pays much attention to the details of the bank notes but there are certainly those that do as can be noted by the person who asked about the three secret names. I think it is amazing that the notes got through without anything being noticed and of course it is a great anti theft device, if you know what to look for of course. Great article and designs. Thanks.
Adirec Torytski
2009-07-27 08:44:37

The Dutch notes were so festive... Especially the Lighthouse one, which is my favorite.
mp3 indir
2010-01-14 22:40:19

There are some auction sites where they sell Dutch notes, you can try or
2010-10-19 13:26:06

i want to create some new engrave designes
2011-02-11 07:32:58

I am absolutly overwhelmed by this work. As an abstract artist In RI I am fortunate to know Ootje. He is a humble quiet man with great knowledge of art.
John-paul Fernandes
2011-07-02 19:02:37

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